Dr. Michael Blume
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Web Resources on Religion and Reproduction
 

Religiosity is adaptive



This page is a contribution and tribute to the scholars network of the Evolutionary Religious Studies, initiated by David Sloan Wilson.

Evolutionary Religious Studies


Key observations about Religiosity & Fertility


Religiosity (defined as behavior toward supernatural agents) is today clearly adaptive: Members of competitive religious communities are building stronger families with more offspring worldwide as their secular neighbours of the same education and income levels. This is observable in empirical studies, censusses worldwide, as well as in case studies (i.e. Amish, Hutterites, Mormons, Orthodox Jews). In contrast, non-religious populations and those religious communities who do not build and support families inevitably succumb to cultural evolution (i.e. late Greek and Roman Polytheism, Gnostic groups, the Shakers) and are replaced by demographically successful religious competitors. Please note: We found many religious traditions that were able to attain high levels of fertility throughout the generations. But in sharp empirical contrast, we didn't find a single non-religious community, movement or population that was able to retain at least replacement level (two births per woman) for a century!


Both genders are exercising evolutionary choices: Women more often favoring stronger marital and communal security (as in strict, monotheistic religions) and offering privileged roles to men in return - whereas the latter tending in higher percentages toward hedonistic, poly- or atheistic worldviews. Even celibate institutions (offering services like policing rule-abiding behavior, strengthening communities and families, child care, education, healing and more) can be adequately described as religious helpers-at-the-nest swapped between family networks (i.e. by Berman et al. 2007).


Survival benefits of religiosity (like health, welfare, security and more) might also apply. But from a biological (and biocultural) perspective, the strong intra-generational "reproductive advantage of religion(s)" (F.A. von Hayek) is setting the decisive benchmark of evolutionary success.


Web-Resources on Religion & Reproduction

On this page, scientific papers in English and German about religion(s) and demography are listed in chronological and alphabetical order. Offline documents and articles charged with a fee are not included here. This collection is free to use for your scientific interest and work. Fair citation is appreciated.

Of course, this page depicts work in progress. If you have any links or pdf-documents (in English or German, containing serious religion-demographic data and available online for free) to add, please send me a mail. And I'd appreciate any comment e.g. on my Scilog "Biology of Religion".


A study conducted of data of the World Value Surveys in 82 Nations showing the correlation of worship attendance of adults and their average number of children.


Studies on Religiosity & Fertility



2011:
* Rowthorn, R.: "Religion, fertility and genes: a dual inheritance model", Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 12th January 2011


2010:
* Blume, M.: "The Reproductive Advantage of Religiosity - Bristol 2010", Lecture at the "Explaining Religion" Conference, Bristol University 2010 (PowerPoint-Sheets)


* Blume, M.: "Von Hayek and the Amish Fertility. How religious communities manage to be fruitful and multiply. A Case study", in: Frey, Ulrich (Hrsg.), "The Nature of God - Evolution and Religion", Tectum Verlag Marburg 2010


* VID Working Paper 04/08: Vegard Skirbekk, Anne Goujon, and Eric Kaufmann, "Secularism or Catholicism? The Religious Composition of the United States to 2043", Vienna Institute of Demography


2009:
* Blume, M.: "The Reproductive Benefits of Religious Affiliation", in: Voland, E.; Schiefenhövel, W.: "The Biological Evolution of Religious Mind and Behaviour", Springer Frontiers Collection 2009.


* Blume, M.: "Homo religiosus", Gehirn und Geist 04/2009. (German, p. 32 - 41)


* Kaufmann, E.: "Shall the Religious Inherit the Earth?", International History/Religion Seminar, Georgetown University, Washington 2009 (English)


* Kaufmann, E.: "Islamism, Religiosity and Fertility in the Muslim World", Paper prepared for 2009 ISA conference, New York (English)


2008:
* Blume, M.: "Evolutionsgeschichte der Religion - Glauben stärkt Kooperation und Reproduktion", Mitteilungen der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte Bd. 29, 2008 (German, English Abstract, p. 21 - 38)


* Blume, M.: "Islamische Religiosität nach Altersgruppen", Religionsmonitor 2008: Muslimische Religiosität in Deutschland, Bertelsmann Stiftung 2008 (S. 44-49) (German)
* transl. "Muslim Religiousness by Age Group", Religion Monitor 2008: Muslim Religiousness in Germany, Bertelsmann Stiftung 2008 (p. 44 - 49) (English)


* Frejka, T.; Westoff, C.: "Religion, Religiousness and Fertility in the US and in Europe", European Journal of Population 24/1 - March 2008 (English, French Abstract)


* Hayford, S.; Morgan, S. P.: "Religiosity and Fertility in the United States: The Role of Fertility Intentions", Soc Forces. 2008; 86(3): 1163–1188.


* Kaufmann, E.: "Human Development and the Demography of Secularization in Global Perspective", Interdisciplinary Journal of Research on Religion. 4 (2008) Article 1 (English)


* Zhang, L.: Religious affiliation, religiosity, and male and female fertility", Demographic Research, Volume 18, Article 8 (p. 233-262, English)


2007:
* Berman, E.; Iannaconne, L.; Ragusa, G.: "From Empty Pews To Empty Cradles: Fertility Decline Among European Catholics", University of Californa San Diego 2007 (English)


* Philipov, D.; Berghammer, C.: "Religion and fertility ideals, intentions and behaviour: a comparative study of European countries", Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 2007, (English, p. 271-305)


* Westoff, C.; Frejka, T.: "Fertility and Religiousness Among European Muslims", Princeton University 2007 (English)


2006:
* Adsera, A.: "Marital Fertility and Religion: Recent Changes in Spain", IZA-Paper 2004, published in: Population Studies, 2006, 60 (2), 205-221 (English)


* Blume, M.; Ramsel, C.; Graupner, S.: "Religion als demographischer Faktor - Ein unterschätzter Zusammenhang?", Marburg Journal of Religion, Juni 2006 (German)

* transl. "Religion as a demographic factor - An underestimated connection?", Marburg Journal of Religion, June 2006 (English)



* Newman, L.; Hugo, G.: "Women’s Fertility, Religion and Education in a Low-Fertility Population: Evidence from South Australia", Journal of Population Research Vol. 23, No. 1, 2006 (English)


2004:
* Bovay, C.; Broquet, R.: "Eidgenössische Volkszählung 2000 - Religionslandschaft in der Schweiz", Schweizer Bundesamt für Statistik (BFS) 2004 (German. French translation available)


* Donnermeyer, J.: "The Demographic Foundations of Amish Society", Ohio State University 2004 (English)


* Lehrer, E.: "Religion as a Determinant of Economic and Demographic Behavior in the United States", IZA-Paper 2004 (English)


2002:
Greksa, L., Korbin, J.: "Key Decisions in the Lives of Old Order Amish", Mennonite Quarterly Review 76 (4): 373-398, 2002. (English)


20th century
* Kane, R.; et al.: "Family Planning Attitudes and Practices in a Mormon Community", Sunstone Magazine, Fall 1976, (English, p. 78 - 85)


* Meyers, Th.: "The Old Order Amish: To Remain In The Faith Or To Leave", American Sociological Association 1992 (English)


* Sato, T. et al.: "Trends in cohort fertility of the Dariusleut Hutterite population", Human Biology, Jun. 1994 (English)


Religiosity, Sexes & Genders



* Blume, M.: "Evolutionsgeschichte der Religion - Glauben stärkt Kooperation und Reproduktion", Mitteilungen der Berliner Gesellschaft für Anthropologie, Ethnologie und Urgeschichte Bd. 29, 2008, S. 21 - 38 (German, English Abstract)


* Euler, H.: "Sexuelle Selektion und Religion", published in Lüke, J.; Schnakenberg, Souvignier (Eds.): Darwin und Gott. Das Verhältnis von Religion und Evolution (S. 66-88). Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft 2004 (German)


* Lehrer, E.: "Religion as a Determinant of Economic and Demographic Behavior in the United States", IZA-Paper 2004 (English)


* Myers, B.C.: "Religiosity and Gender Role Attitudes", American Journal of Psychological Research (3)1, 2007 (English)


* Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life: "U.S. Religious Landscape Survey - Gender", Pew Forum 2008 (English, p. 62)


* Wunn, I.: "Religiosität muslimischer Frauen in Deutschland", Religionsmonitor 2008: Muslimische Religiosität in Deutschland, Bertelsmann Stiftung 2008 (German, S. 60-67)
* transl. "Religiousness of Muslim Women in Germany", Religion Monitor 2008: Muslim Religiousness in Germany, Bertelsmann Stiftung 2008 (English, p. 60 - 67)


www.Blume-Religionswissenschaft.de